The exhaustive compatibility testing provided the technology with an acceptance within the industry beyond what could have been expected of a ‘new’ invention.
The compatibility testing protocols used were very similar to those currently required by the aero industry for aviation jet fuel. This testing is also applicable to the oil industry.
During the early development of Aquasolve™ it was suggested by an established scientific figure that one of the reasons for the permanent dissolving of water in oil by Aquasolve™ could be that the water molecule had been broken down enough to cause the migration of its hydroxyl to the long chain hydrocarbon, helping to further encourage a permanent bond of fuel oil and water.
As this in terms of physics was not a research priority at the time and it was not until much later when testing some light crude oil having been contaminated with water and solubilized by Aquasolve™ that it was noted by analysis using the Karl Fischer Coulometric Titration Method (IP386MOD) and Dean and Stark water by distillation method (ASTM D95), run by the same independent UK laboratory showed a major reduction in detectable water in the oil, to <0.1% water, by these standard oilfield methods. In addition, standard centrifugation of the oil samples yielded no detectable BS&W content of the oil treated with Aquasolve™. A summary of these test results on crude oil can be made available upon request.
Any additive designed for aviation fuel must be safe and proven not to compromise engine efficiency. Commercial decisions cannot compromise air safety. Aquasolve™ tests include, FAME, Karl Fischer Coulometric Titration Method (IP386MOD) and Dean and Stark water by distillation method (ASTM D95) all providing conclusive data proving that the jet fuel is free from water contamination once Aquasolve™ is added. Aqua solve™ is a proven fuel treatment that will eradicate water in fuel, prevent diesel bug, enhance engine performance, reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption acknowledging the EASA Certification below .
For aviation fuels, there exists the EASA Certification Specification Subpart-E 560 (d) which states ‘The fuel system must be designed so that any accumulation of likely quantities of water, which may separate from fuel, will not cause Engine malfunctioning’.
Aquasolve™ Performance Testing and Compatibility Checks
A recent test program for Aquasolve™ looked at one type of North Sea Crude Oil (30°C API gravity crude) and observed that, by adding Aquasolve™ at a cost effective dose rate to this crude oil, while ensuring the correct mixing and dispersion of the chemical is done, the chemical technology was proven to solubilise up the majority of 5% water into that crude oil. The details of the test program in summary follow.
Test Program A1: Firstly, two 100 mls samples of North Sea crude each had 5% tap water added at room temperature. One was kept chemical free while the other had Aquasolve™ chemical added at a fixed dose rate and was stirred in to solubilise the oil & water. Another 100 mls of the same oil was included as the control. These samples were then subjected to analysis via IP386MOD (Karl Fischer titration) in an independent UK laboratory. The blank oil sample gave a result of 0.09%wt/wt water while the Aquasolve™ test sample gave a result of only 0.63%wt/wt water, with the untreated sample giving a water content of 4.60%wt/wt. This showed that over 86% of the water was no longer detectable by this method and this could be improved by enhanced sample mixing. Centrifugation of a repeat set of oil samples yielded no detected water or BS&W (Base Sediment & water). These initially encouraging results were followed by a new set of laboratory tests.
Test Program A2: We prepared a series of samples for testing which consisted of two modified formulations of Aquasolve™, one which had previously tested successfully (Tests A1). These consisted of two samples of each category, one being the first modified formula, which was tested originally via the Karl Fischer method and the second which contained additional modifications to see if it could prove more efficient on this crude oil. Again there were blank oil samples, using the same North Sea oil with 5% tap water added and then the same again but treated with Aquasolve™, using each of the two formulations. As previously discussed the method of mixing or introduction of Aquasolve™ to the crude oil is crucial as it is impossible to view the solubilising process due to the opaqueness of the oil.
The compatibility studies and corrosion tests in the attached documents, although applied to fuel oils, all document the reactions and benefits of the technology in various situations. For crude oil production systems, in oil export pipelines with relatively low water cuts, the potential for the Coval product to be multifunctional, in that it will help to reduce bio fouling, to reduce general corrosion and improve flow characteristics, is why this technology is unique in our view and ready for use in the oil and gas industry.